A large, financially interconnected company is on the verge of collapse, weighed down by massive debt. The government is considering a bailout. There is no easy answer. Doing nothing risks causing serious financial upheaval. But bailing it out will signal that greed, irresponsibility and moral hazard have no consequences.
Lehman Brothers, founded in 1847, survived the American Civil War, the Great Depression, and both World Wars. Then, in the feverish risk-betting bubble in the US mortgage market of the 1980s, he found himself in serious trouble.
US Treasury Secretary Hank Paulson – a former senior Wall Street executive – was, by all accounts, offended that Lehman had become so recklessly in this position. Why not send the message that the US government was not going to bail out the big banks that were behaving badly?
The answer, it turned out, is that letting Lehman fail ricocheted through the United States and the global economy.
When Lehman filed for Chapter 11 protection, he faced the biggest bankruptcy in history. Those to whom she owed money were immediately put under pressure. It put those to whom they owed money under pressure. Money markets have almost completely frozen over.
Unlike Lehman Brothers, Evergrande is not an investment bank. Apparently, he’s a real estate developer, responsible for building apartments across China. But it has evolved into more than that: an integrated, high-leverage company that does everything from banking to real estate development to selling electric cars.
Like a lot of things in China, the real picture is a bit hazy, but one reading is that Evergrande is essentially a hedge fund with a real estate and auto business attached.
For now, the disaster has been averted by Evergrande who agreed to sell his stake in a local bank (Shengjing Bank) for nearly 10 billion yuan (about $ 1.5 billion) to the state-owned Shenyang Shengjing. Finance Investment Group.
But Evergrande has $ 300 billion in debt, so Chinese officials really can’t run away from the problem. If there are more questionable transactions on Evergrande’s books, then that $ 1.5 billion will just save time.
If things are as bad in Evergrande State as many observers seem to think, then the Chinese government is going to have to bail it out or let it fail.
In a sense, perhaps the CCP feels that “we are all Hank Paulsons now.”
That said, there is an intriguing – albeit somewhat troubling – option available to Chinese authorities.
They could bail out the company but punish its senior officers with severe personal sanctions. Frankly speaking, they don’t have to worry about the intricacies of due process the way the US government does.
The Chinese government can, if it wishes, prevent the economy-wide repercussions that would result from an Evergrande collapse, but deter moral hazard in the future. This can send a very clear message of consequence to executives who engage in reckless and potentially corrupt behavior. Maybe life imprisonment. Maybe worse.
This is an interesting, if rather bleak, example of Tinbergen’s rule – named after Jan Tinbergen, the winner of the first Nobel Prize in economics. This rule says that for every political challenge, there needs to be an independent political instrument. The US government had one. The Chinese regime has two.
Beyond that lie much bigger issues. How well have Chinese companies actually performed? So far, it seemed the response was remarkably good. But is all this just a mirage, supported by the lack of transparency that envelops all Chinese institutions?
It seems that there can be two types of Chinese companies: those that “make” things, which have been successful and still are, and those which “bank” things, which look strangely like their capitalist counterparts in the United States. Western world. when moral hazard and corruption are allowed to prevail.
The upheaval in the years to come will reveal a lot about the economic basis of China’s global power.
(Edited by : Yashi Gupta)